Self-Powered Fast Battery Tester Schematic

Tests 1.5 to 15 Volt cells, Two-LED display, no power supply required

This circuit runs a fast battery test without the need of power
supply or expensive moving-coil voltmeters. It features two ranges: when
SW1 is set as shown in the circuit diagram, the device can test 3V to
15V batteries. When SW1 is switched to the other position, only 1.5V
cells can be tested.

Circuit diagram:

Self-Powered Fast Battery Tester Circuit Diagram

Parts:

Resistors
R1 = 2.2K
R2 = 3.3R
R3 = 10R
R4 = 4.7K
R5 = 33K
R6 = 100K
R7 = 100K
R8 = 220K
R9 = 330K
R10 = 500K

Capacitors
C1 = 10nf-63V
C2 = 10nf-63V
C3 = 100nF-63V
C4 = 100nF-63V
C5 = 100nF-63V
C6 = 100nF-63V
C7 = 100nF-63V
C8 = 220uF-35V

Semiconductors
Q1 = 2N3819 FET
Q2 = BC337 NPN
Q3 = BC337 NPN
D1 = 5mm Red LED
D2 = 1N4148
D3 = 1N4148
D4 = 1N4148
D5 = 1N4148
D6 = 1N4148
D7 = 5mm Red LED
IC1 = 7555
IC2 = 7555

Miscellaneous
SW1 = DPDT Switch
BUT = Battery Under Test
P1 = SPST Pushbutton

Testing 3V to 15V batteries:
1. Switch SW1 as shown in the circuit diagram.
2. Place the battery under test in a suitable holder or clip it to the circuit.
3. Wait some seconds in order to let C8 reach its full charge.
4. LED D1 illuminates at a constant intensity, independent of battery voltage.
5. If D1 illuminates very weakly or is completely off the battery is unusable.
6. If D1 has a good illumination, press P1 and keep an eye to LED D7.
7. If D7 remains completely off, the battery is in a very good state.
8. If D7 illuminates brightly for a few seconds, the battery is weak.
This condition is confirmed by a noticeable weakening in D1 brightness.
9. If D7 illuminates weakly for a few seconds but D1 maintain the same
light intensity, the battery is still good but is not new.

Testing 1.5V batteries:
1. Switch SW1 in the position opposite to that shown in the circuit diagram.
2. Place the battery under test in a suitable holder or clip it to the circuit.
3. Wait some seconds in order to let C8 reach its full charge.
4. LED D1 illuminates very weakly only in presence of a new battery, otherwise is off.
Press P1 and keep an eye to LED D7. If D7 remains fully off the battery can be in very good state.
If D7 illuminates brightly for a few seconds, the battery is weak.
If D7 illuminates weakly for a few seconds, the battery is still good but is not new.
If you are suspecting a 1.5V cell to be completely discharged, a better
test can be made wiring two 1.5V batteries in series, then running the
3V test.

Circuit Operation:

FET Q1 provides a constant current generator biasing LED
D1 and Q2 Base. In this manner D1 illuminates at a constant intensity,
independent of battery voltage from 3 to 15V and Q2 (when P1 is closed)
applies a constant current load of about 120mA to the battery. IC1 is a
square wave generator oscillating at about 3KHz. IC2 acts as an inverter
and drives, together with IC1 but in anti-phase, Diodes D2-D6 and
Capacitors C4-C7, obtaining a voltage multiplication.

C8 is charged by this raised voltage and R8-R10 form a voltage
divider biasing the Base of Q3. When P1 is open, a very light load is
applied to the battery under test and Q3 Base is biased in order to
maintain LED D7 in the off state. Closing P1, a
120mA load is applied to the battery under test. If the battery is not
fully charged, its output voltage starts reducing: when this voltage
fall 0.6V below the battery nominal voltage, Q3 Emitter becomes more
negative than the Base, the transistor is hard biased and D7
illuminates.

Obviously, this state of affairs will last a few seconds: the time
spent by C8 to reduce its initial voltage to the new one, proportional
to the voltage of the loaded battery. If the battery under test is in a
good charging state, its output voltage will not fall under a 120mA
loading current, so LED D7 will stay off. When
testing 1.5V batteries, the circuit formed by Q1, Q2, D1, and R1 &
R2 does not work well at this supply voltage, so a 150mA load current is
applied to the BUT by means of the 10 Ohm resistor R3 after switching SW1A. Q3 bias is also changed via SW1B.

Notes:
To set-up this circuit applies a 6 to 7.5V voltage source to the input and trim R10 until LED D7 is completely off (without pushing on P1).
1.5V test position needs no set-up.
CMos 555 ICs must be used for IC1 & IC2 because they are the only cheap devices able to oscillate at 1.5V supply or less.

Source: Red Free Circuit Design

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